Arrival to the emergency room (ER) can increase stress levels in patients and family members. Thus, there is a need for a short and effective form of PFA provided by ER staff members, to reduce acute stress responses (ASR). Past studies have shown that psychological interventions based on emotional expression do not help to regulate extreme emotional expressions nor does it prevent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Alternatively, the Six C’s model adopts a neuropsychological approach that focuses on cognitive communication, challenging for efficient activation, organizing the event’s chronological order and reduction in loneliness by committing to stay with them. This experimental design study examined the effectiveness of the Six C’s model on reducing signs of ASR.
Anxiety and hopelessness are common reactions of citizens exposed to continuous war threats. Common interventions focus on support, calming, and emotional ventilation, with few attempts to reduce people’s cognitive barriers concerning active coping, which could increase their resilience. This study tested the effects of psychological inoculation (PI), which specifically aims to challenge such barriers, on the mental resilience of Israeli citizens living in Sderot. Participants were randomly assigned to either 2 PI sessions or 2 ventilation sessions, provided over the phone. Anxiety, helplessness, pessimism, and functioning were briefly assessed at baseline and 1 week after interventions. No time, group, or group x time interactions were observed. However, a time x group x sex interaction emerged for helplessness: Men benefited from the PI whereas women benefited from ventilation, in reducing helplessness. Under chronic war stress, it seems difficult to improve people’s resilience, although PI may be partly beneficial for men. Further research is needed to test the effects of PI on mental resilience.
Acute stress reactions immediately after exposure to trauma or crisis have received growing attention in recent years and are gaining momentum in light of recent mass traumatic events worldwide including conflicts, terrorist attacks and natural disasters. Unlike routine life, traumatic or emergency situations are unexpected and unstructured events. Early helping responses in these situations is of utmost importance: immediate, focused and efficient interventions are beneficial for the reduction of acute stress reactions and a return to normal functioning as well as decreasing the risk for future onset of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. However, many early efforts were either found to be ineffective or are based on narrative expression and empathy alone. The aim of this paper is to present the SIX Cs model – a new psychological first aid approach – immediate cognitive-functional psychological first aid – for the global nonprofessional community as well as for first responders. The model addresses the need to standardize interventions during an Acute Stress Reaction and intends to help shift the person from helplessness & passiveness into active effective functioning, within minutes, in the immediate aftermath of a perceived traumatic event. The model is based on four theoretical and empirically tested concepts: (1) Hardiness, (2) Sense of Coherence, (3) Self-Efficacy, and (4) on the Neuro-psychology of the stress response, focusing on shifting people from a limbic system hyperactivity to a prefrontal cortex activation during stressful events. Preliminary results on the effectiveness of the SIX Cs model in terms of increasing resiliency, reducing anxiety and improving perceived self-efficacy are presented. To date, this approach has been recognized by the Israeli Ministry of Health as the Israeli national model for psychological first aid.
Under conditions of profound stress, individuals in high-risk occupations may experience an acute stress reaction (ASR). Given that ASRs may interfere with functioning, placing the team in danger, the Israel Defense Forces developed YaHaLOM training to teach service members how to manage ASRs in team members. YaHaLOM is a novel, rapid, peer-based intervention specifically designed for use in the midst of a high-stress event. In all, 904 Israeli combat soldiers participated in the study; 76% reported having received YaHaLOM, and 24% reported that they had not. In addition to measures of knowledge about managing ASRs, confidence in managing ASRs, and stigma-related attitudes toward ASRs, questions also addressed training approach, including the use of a video and instructor type. Participants who reported receiving YaHaLOM also reported more knowledge about managing an ASR, more confidence in managing an ASR, less external stigma, and more normative views of ASRs. Being trained with a video was associated with more confidence and less self-stigma than being trained without a video. Instructor type was not associated with differences in knowledge, confidence, or stigma-related attitudes. The study is limited by cross-sectional self-report data. Nevertheless, results suggest YaHaLOM may prepare soldiers to manage ASRs in team members; future studies are needed to assess intervention efficacy and to expand this research to other high-risk occupational contexts.
While previous studies have examined the long-term mental health consequences of exposure to traumatic events in the military, few studies have focused on acute stress reactions (ASRs) during the mission itself. The present paper describes the development is a novel peer-based intervention created by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) for use in high-stress contexts (known as the Hebrew acronym “YaHaLOM”). Following an overview of diagnostic and clinical considerations, we review the potential frameworks for developing YaHaLOM, detail the five steps of the intervention, describe implementation of YaHaLOM training in the IDF, and review examples of YaHaLOM utilization.
Recent research proposes that left hemispheric lateralization (HL) may protect against the effects of life events on mental distress. This study extends these findings by examining the protective role of left HL in the relationship between war threat (missile exposure) and PTSD symptoms. A sample of 186 Israelis, exposed to missile attacks, completed brief scales of self-reported missile exposure, a subjective and a neuropsychological HL measure, and of PTSD symptoms. The sample was split into right HL and left HL individuals on both HL measures. Self-reported missile exposure was positively associated with PTSD symptoms in right HL, but not in left HL individuals on both HL measures. These results replicate, extend our previous results and suggest that left HL may even protect against the effects of severe life threatening events. Results are discussed in relation to neuropsychological and neurophysiological differences between the hemispheres.
Dans le contexte actuel de pandémie qui nous affecte tous, parfois à des degrés différents, de nombreux facteurs de stress ont été identifiés qui peuvent fragiliser certains patients et nécessiter un accompagnement spécifique.
Le Protocole National Israélien dit des « 6C » est dispensé comme premiers soins d’urgences (dans les 6 premières heures) devant une situation traumatique (crise, catastrophe) à l’échelle individuelle, et son auteur, le Pr Moshe FARCHI, a généreusement partagé son expérience avec plusieurs soignants de différents pays.
Thousands of migrants passed through the Balkans whilst migrating from the Middle East to Europe between 2015 and 2016. Humanitarian actions were conducted throughout this route as agencies and governments provided support. The Camp of Preševo, on the Southern border of Serbia, was established by the local authorities as a registration camp to monitor the migration and deliver aid. Part of this aid was psychosocial. Past studies show a relatively high prevalence of stress symptoms among forced migrants, presumably due to exposure to war-related atrocities and experience of forced migration. NATAN, an Israeli non-governmental organisation, is a volunteer-based organisation that delivered psychosocial support to the migrants using the ‘SIX Cs model’. This model focuses on cognitive and behavioural components and is based on the neuropsychology of resilience. It has advantages that were relevant to the context of the camp, namely culturally adaptive, easy to administer, short and adjustable to varied contexts. Moreover, the model gives tools, which could be used later by the migrants in the absence of a therapist. This report describes the SIX Cs model and the implementation of its intervention in the Preševo camp.
Un évènement potentiellement traumatique est défini, selon le DSM-V, comme un évènement menaçant pour l’individu et pouvant amener à la mort (Crocq & Guelfi, 2015). L’évènement traumatogène bouleverse la vie du sujet et l’ensemble de son intégrité psychocorporelle en causant une disjonction corps/esprit (Van der Kolk, 2018). La personne est alors soumise à un ensemble d’éprouvés émotionnels, corporels et sensoriels intenses. Les fonctions psychomotrices du sujet sont impactées dans le présent et le futur entrainant une rupture du lien à soi. Depuis 1995, un dispositif spécifique est mis en place pour l’urgence médico-psychologique. Les cellules médico-psychologique (CUMP), composées de psychiatres, infirmiers et psychologues, interviennent immédiatement après un évènement traumatogène de masse afin de prodiguer des premiers soins spécifiques aux victimes en prévention
d’une installation des symptômes post-traumatiques. Le defusing et débriefing sont les outils de soins utilisés au sein des CUMP. Quelles sont les fonctions du corps accompagnées dans les dispositifs de soin des cellules d’urgence médicopsychologique ?
Objetivo. Analizar la eficacia del personal voluntario y profesional que asiste en emergencias (Bomberos Voluntarios, Defensa Civil, Cruz Roja) en un programa de entrenamiento en la Primera Ayuda Psicológica y su relación con indicadores de empatía y estrategias de afrontamiento. Método. Se realizó un estudio cuantitativo, comparativo correlacional, con una muestra de 198 voluntarios que pertenecen a instituciones que intervienen en emergencias. Se utilizó un programa de simulación sobre respuestas a víctimas de catástrofes (Sistema Interactivo de Primera Ayuda Psicológica y el Inventario de Valoración y Afrontamiento). Resultados. Los voluntarios que expresan que manejan mejor una situación estresante lograban un rendimiento más eficaz en el programa de simulación. La valoración del contexto como amenazante o indiferente, perjudicaba la ejecución del protocolo de PAP propuesto en la ejercitación mediante software.
Contrairement à la vie quotidienne, les situations traumatiques ou d’urgence sont des événements inattendus et non structurés. Il est de la plus haute importance d’apporter une aide rapide dans ces situations.
Le modèle répond à la nécessité de normaliser les interventions lors d’une réaction de stress aiguë, vise à aider la personne à passer de l’impuissance et de la passivité à un fonctionnement actif et efficace, en quelques minutes, dans le sillage immédiat d’un événement traumatique perçu. Le modèle est basé sur quatre concepts théoriques et empiriques testés…